A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page, image, and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator (URL), enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device.
The web browser works as follows. First, the rendering engine parses CSS and HTML files. While parsing the HTML file, the rendering engine also produces DOM tree data construct where every node refers to an HTML tag, a property or a section of a text. CSS decides the visual style of the webpage based on the style rules, each of which selects single/multiple HTML tags for applying the properties. During parsing, CSS rules are extracted and corresponding data structure is constructed. Based on CSS rules and DOM tree, the style resolution unit decides the style information of the page (such as color font) by generating the render tree. Every node of the render tree corresponds to one visual component of the webpage. From this, the layout unit computes the precise screen-coordinates of every visual component. Finally, the painting unit traverses the render tree and invokes graphics libraries to actually display the page on the screen.
A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are often confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device.As of March 2019, more than 4.3 billion people are web browser users, around 55% of the world’s population. Their success is in part caused by their flexibility, due to their Turing-complete execution and powerful graphic capabilities.The most popular browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, and Edge.
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