In espionage and counterintelligence, surveillance ( or ) is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras) or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls). It can also include simple no- or relatively low-technology methods such as human intelligence agent and postal interception. The word surveillance comes from a French phrase for "watching over" (sur means "from above" and veiller means "to watch") and is in contrast to more recent developments such as sousveillance.Surveillance is used by governments for intelligence gathering, prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. It is also used by criminal organisations to plan and commit crimes, such as robbery and kidnapping, by businesses to gather intelligence, and by private investigators.
Surveillance can be viewed as a violation of privacy, and as such is often opposed by various civil liberties groups and activists. Liberal democracies have laws which restrict domestic government and private use of surveillance, usually limiting it to circumstances where public safety is at risk. Authoritarian government seldom have any domestic restrictions, and international espionage is common among all types of countries.
The area of surveillance is increasingly a topic of academic study, including through research centers, books, and peer-reviewed academic journals. In the future, intelligence services might use the internet of things for identification, surveillance, monitoring, location tracking, and targeting for recruitment, or to gain access to networks or user credentials.
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